Cities in North Europe and Switzerland lead the way as the best cities for expats on assignment, according to the latest research.
Expat reward specialist ECA International asked thousands of expats about their experiences of 460 cities around the world and found that Copenhagen, Denmark and Bern, Switzerland tied as the favourite destinations for the second year running.
The top cities all benefitted from clean air and low crime.
The top UK city was the Scottish capital of Edinburgh, while London languished in 47th place due to personal safety fears and concerns about pollution.
Neil Ashman, a senior location ratings analyst at ECA International, said: “Pollution, crime rate and terrorism threats are among the factors that affect the liveability of major UK cities such as London, Manchester, Belfast and Glasgow.
High standards and political stability
“Europeans relocating for work or looking to move abroad can expect a good quality of life in many locations in Ireland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany or Norway; countries that dominate the top 20 of our rankings.”
Switzerland and the Netherlands both had four cities in the top rankings, Germany had three, while Sweden and Denmark had two each.
“Northern European cities in places such as Scandinavia, the Netherlands and Switzerland, have consistently scored well for expat liveability. Excellent transport links, a high standard of healthcare and long-term political stability, mean that overseas workers from elsewhere in Europe can adapt to these locations with ease,” said Ashman.
Expats scored cities on several factors, such as health services; housing and utilities; isolation; access to a social network and leisure facilities; infrastructure; climate; personal safety; political tensions and air quality.
Top 20 cities for European expats
Source: ECA International